28.8.09

gnosticism

only the future can send me back to you when all i have is who i am and the kindness of others to leave myself at the mercy of. i'm drowning in life.



This utter pessimism, bemoaning the existence of the whole universe as a corruption and a calamity, with a feverish craving to be freed from the body of this death and a mad hope that, if we only knew, we could by some mystic words undo the cursed spell of this existence -- this is the foundation of all Gnostic thought.

The second great component of Gnostic thought is magic, properly so called, i.e. the power ex opere operato of weird names, sounds, gestures, and actions, as also the mixture of elements to produce effects totally disproportionate to the cause. These magic formulae, which caused laughter and disgust to outsiders, are not a later and accidental corruption, but an essential part of Gnosticism, for they are found in all forms of Christian Gnosticism and likewise in Mandaeism. No Gnosis was essentially complete without the knowledge of the formulae, which, once pronounced, were the undoing of the higher hostile powers. Magic is the original sin of Gnosticism, nor is it difficult to guess whence it is inherited. To a certain extent it formed part of every pagan religion, especially the ancient mysteries, yet the thousands of magic tablets unearthed is Assyria and Babylonia show us where the rankest growth of magic was to be found. Moreover, the terms and names of earliest of Gnosticism bear an unmistakable similarity to Semitic sounds and words.
But from the first the Gnostic conception of a Saviour is more superhuman than that of popular Judaism; their Manda d'Haye, or Soter, is some immediate manifestation of the Deity, a Light-King, an Æon (Aion), and an emanation of the good God

Æons
In different Gnostic systems the hierarchy of Aeons was diversely elaborated. But in all are recognizable a mixture of Platonic, mythological, and Christian elements. There is always the primitive all-perfect Æon, the fountain-head of divinity, and a co-eternal companion Æon. From these emanate a second pair who, in turn, engender others, generally in pairs, or in groups of pairs, in keeping with the Egyptian idea of divine couples. One of these inferior Æons, desiring to know the unknowable, to penetrate the secrets of the primal Æon, brings disorder into the Æon-world, is exiled, and brings forth a very imperfect Æon, who, being unworthy of a place in the Pleroma, brings the divine spark to the nether world. Then follows the creation of the material universe.

Finally, there is evolved the Æon Christ, who is to restore harmony in the Æon-world, and heal the disorder in the material world consequent upon the catastrophe in the ideal order, by giving to man the knowledge which will rescue him from the dominion of matter and evil. The number of Æons varies with different systems, being determined in some by Pythagorean and Platonic ideas on the mystic efficacy of numbers; in others by epochs in, or the duration of, the life of Christ. The Æons were given names, each Gnostic system having its own catalogue, suggested by Christian terminology, and by Oriental, or philosophical and mythological nomenclature. There were nearly as many aeonic hierarchies as there were Gnostic systems, but the most elaborate of these, as far as is known, was that of Valentinus, whose fusion of Christianity and Platonism is so completely described in the refutation of this system by St. Irenæus and Tertullian. (See GNOSTICISM, VALENTINUS, BASILIDES, PTOLEMY.)

Moreover, a fair idea of Gnostic doctrines can be obtained from the articles on leaders and phases of Gnostic thought (e.g. BASILIDES; VALENTINUS; MARCION; DOCETAE; DEMIURGE). We shall here only indicate some main phases of thought, which can be regarded as keys and which, though not fitting all systems, will unlock most of the mysteries of the Gnosis.

Cosmogony
This undefined infinite Something, though it might be addressed by the title of the Good God, was not a personal Being, but, like Tad of Brahma of the Hindus, the "Great Unknown" of modern thought. The Unknown God, however, was in the beginning pure spirituality; matter as yet was not.

This source of all being causes to emanate (proballei) from itself a number of pure spirit forces.
The transition from the immaterial to the material, from the noumenal to the sensible, is brought about by a flaw, or a passion, or a sin, in one of the Æons. According to Basilides, it is a flaw in the last sonship; according to others it is the passion of the female Æon Sophia; according to others the sin of the Great Archon, or Æon-Creator, of the Universe.
The ultimate end of all Gnosis is metanoia, or repentance, the undoing of the sin of material existence and the return to the Pleroma.

Sophia myth
Æon Sophia usually plays another role; she is he Prouneikos or "the Lustful One", once a virginal goddess, who by her fall from original purity is the cause of this sinful material world.
One of the earliest forms of this myth is found in Simonian Gnosis, in which Simon, the Great Power, finds Helena, who during ten years had been a prostitute in Tyre, but who is Simon's ennoia, or understanding, and whom his followers worshipped under the form of Athena, the goddess of wisdom.

The Great Declaration"; it is evident that we have here the doctrinal opinions of the Simonians as they had developed in the second century. According to these there was a perfect, eternal ungenerated being (fire), that contained an invisible, hidden element and a visible, manifest element; the hidden is concealed in the manifest; the action of both is similar to that of the intelligible and the sensible in Plato. The jealousy of the inferior spirits seems to have forced the "Ennoia" to take female forms and to migrate from one body into another, until Simon Magus, the great power sent forth by the original being, discovered her in Helena and released her. The deliverance was wrought by his being recognized as the highest power of God, the "Standing One". Men are also saved by accepting Simon's doctrine, by recognizing him as the great power of God.

Sophia conceives a passion for the First Father himself, or rather, under pretext of love she seeks to know him, the Unknowable, and to comprehend his greatness. She should have suffered the consequence of her audacity by ultimate dissolution into the immensity of the Father, but for the Boundary Spirit. According to the Pistis Sophia (ch. xxix) Sophia, daughter of Barbelos, originally dwelt in the highest, or thirteenth heaven, but she is seduced by the demon Authades by means of a ray of light, which she mistook as an emanation from the First Father. Authades thus enticed her into Chaos below the twelve Æons, where she was imprisoned by evil powers.

Soteriology
Gnostic salvation is not merely individual redemption of each human soul; it is a cosmic process. It is the return of all things to what they were before the flaw in the sphere of the Æons brought matter into existence and imprisoned some part of the Divine Light into the evil Hyle (Hyle). This setting free of the light sparks is the process of salvation; when all light shall have left Hyle, it will be burnt up, destroyed, or be a sort of everlasting hell for the Hylicoi.In Basilidianism it is the Third Filiation that is captive in matter, and is gradually being saved, now that the knowledge of its existence has been brought to the first Archon and then to the Second Archon, to each by his respective Son; and the news has been spread through the Hebdomad by Jesus the son of Mary, who died to redeem the Third Filiation.

When this world has been born from Sophia in consequence of her sin, Nous and Aletheia, two Æons, by command of the Father, produce two new Æons, Christ and the Holy Ghost; these restore order in the Pleroma, and in consequence all Æons together produce a new Æon, Jesus Logos, Soter, or Christ, whom they offer to the Father. Christ, the Son of Nous and Aletheia, has pity on the abortive substance born of Sophia and gives it essence and form. Whereupon Sophia tries to rise again to the Father, but in vain. Now the Æon Jesus-Soter is sent as second Saviour, he unites himself to the man Jesus, the son of Mary, at his baptism, and becomes the Saviour of men. Man is a creature of the Demiurge, a compound of soul, body, and spirit. His salvation consists in the return of his pneuma or spirit to the Pleroma; or if he be only a Psychicist, not a full Gnostic, his soul (psyche) shall return to Achamoth. There is no resurrection of the body. (For further details and differences see VALENTINUS.)

salvation consisted in the possession of the knowledge of the Good God and the rejection of the Demiurge. The Good God revealed himself in Jesus and appeared as man in Judea; to know him, and to become entirely free from the yoke of the World-Creator or God of the Old Testament, is the end of all salvation.

Eschatology
Gnostic eschatology, consisting in the soul's struggle with hostile archons in its attempt to reach the Pleroma, is simply the soul's ascent, in Babylonian astrology, through the realms of the seven planets to Anu. Origen (Against Celsus VI.31), referring to the Ophitic system, gives us the names of the seven archons as Jaldabaoth, Jao, Sabaoth, Adonaios, Astaphaios, Ailoaios, and Oraios, and tells us that Jaldabaoth is the planet Saturn. Astraphaios is beyond doubt the planet Venus, as there are gnostic gems with a female figure and the legend ASTAPHE, which name is also used in magic spells as the name of a goddess. In the Mandaean system Adonaios represents the Sun. Moreover, St. Irenæus tells us: "Sanctam Hebdomadem VII stellas, quas dictunt planetas, esse volunt." It is safe, therefore, to take the above seven Gnostic names as designating the seven stars, then considered planets,
• Jaldabaoth (Child of Chaos? -- Saturn, called "the Lion-faced", leontoeides) is the outermost, and therefore the chief ruler, and later on the Demiurge par excellence.
• Jao (Iao, perhaps from Jahu, Jahveh, but possibly also from the magic cry iao in the mysteries) is Jupiter.
• Sabaoth (the Old-Testament title -- God of Hosts) was misunderstood; "of hosts" was thought a proper name, hence Jupiter Sabbas (Jahve Sabaoth) was Mars.
• Astaphaios (taken from magic tablets) was Venus.
• Adonaios (from the Hebrew term for "the Lord", used of God; Adonis of the Syrians representing the Winter sun in the cosmic tragedy of Tammuz) was the Sun;
• Ailoaios, or sometimes Ailoein (Elohim, God), Mercury;
• Oraios (Jaroah? or light?), the Moon.

What tended most to obliterate the sevenfold distinction was the identification of the God of the Jews, the Lawgiver, with Jaldabaoth and his designation as World-creator, whereas formerly the seven planets together ruled the world. This confusion, however, was suggested by the very fact that at least five of the seven archons bore Old-Testament names for God -- El Shaddai, Adonai, Elohim, Jehovah, Sabaoth.

God, in danger of the power of darkness, creates with the help of the Spirit, the five worlds, the twelve elements, and the Eternal Man, and makes him combat the darkness. But this Man is somehow overcome by evil and swallowed up by darkness. The present universe is in throes to deliver the captive Man from the powers of darkness.The opposition between the good God and the World-Creator is not eternal or cosmogonic, though there is strong ethical opposition to Jehovah the God of the Jews. He is the last of the seven angels who fashioned this world out of eternally pre-existent matter. The demiurgic angels, attempting to create man, created but a miserable worm, to which the Good God, however, gave the spark of divine life. The rule of the god of the Jews must pass away, for the good God calls us to his own immediate service through Christ his Son. We obey the Supreme Deity by abstaining from flesh meat and marriage, and by leading an ascetic life.worshippers of the serpent as a symbol of wisdom, which the God of the Jews tried to hide from men.

19.8.09

Contradictions and Paradoxes

That relativity and quanta are both true but mutually exclusive?? You can use either equation to prove whatever you want! Statistics mean whatever you want them too. Using economic equations to change government, you now can influence entire portions of society: culture, environment, even religion! And what gives you access to education?? Money! Now, everyone is going into debt to learn equations so they can use and control them. People are then getting out of college and looking for a way to get a shit-ton of money. Why is this happening? Because money lets you play. And this is doing crazy fucking things to the economy, the orchestrated coordination of TRADE. Like when people said, ill give you my shell necklace for your purple cloth. Or that weird plant for my daughters hand in marriage. And because we are always trading with the OTHER, we think this transaction won’t affect “us” besides giving “me” what I want. And so we CAPITILIZE on the gain, meaning we get the best deal, regardless of the other person. This is uncontrollable, and will possibly destroy the earth’s resources since everyone wants “more”. So, make only the most abundant resources free. LIKE EDUCATION. That way, we can learn the equations to change the world. But, along with knowledge of equations, we have to foster some sort of love of one another, so people can use their powers for good. This is where morality, which is the foundation for religions, molds children into the emotional, caring, empathetic, aware persons that s/he needs to be.

Do you realize why we are prosperous? It’s because we have a shit ton of people. And because each one of them needs to “work” in order to get money to survive, everyone is laboring together, in whatever way they choose to. Everyone is sucked into one big lottery, based on mathematical equations that form logic. But we deny people education so they don’t understand these equations. And we live off of their movements and get money and do “mental labor” like managing the team of livestock. And we all get paid, but the top people at a disproportionate rate. Because money is quantifiable. And we can’t ever get more than we pay for, because society is capitalizing on us. And wants to get the best deal. And will never go into debt to provide for me. instead the individual goes into debt for society. And that’s how “society” and the market grows. Growing and growing and absorbing everything. Music, sports, everything is now equalized through money. And a tree is now property, and can be cut down and sold for parts. And wildlife can be raised and killed and sold for its parts. And people go to war with each other for money, and land that can be turned into money to pay for the needs of people who understand equations. But we will never reach our potential until we throw off the burdens of living by our equations. Because, the most crucial equations ever studied are mutually exclusive and factually correct. And this means anything is possible. Until we embrace these truths, no one will be free-their actions will be based only on rules.

NEW SCHOOLS MUST EMERGE. WE ARE POISED TO DO IT.


8.8.09

historical bullshit

Top Ten Arguments Why the Industrial Revolution was not Helpful to the American People

10. Poor housing/ slums

9. Corruption in the political scene

8. Low wages

7. Businesses took advantage of workers à scabs/strikebreakers used to end protests for better conditions

6. Products that were produced were of poor quality

5. Big companies could lower the prices of their goods to put competition out of business

4. Long hoursà accidents

3. Diseases

2. Child labor in poor conditions (many children were crippled)

1. No safety standards or health insurance


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Four Arguments for the Fight for Independence:

· The colonists have done everything they can for peace (petitioned, remonstrated, supplicated, prostrated…) and to avoid conflict but nothing has worked.

· The colonists pleas have caused more violence and insult.

· The colonists must fight to attain the privileges and freedom that they have been contending for so long.

· The colonists should not be idle, and should not talk of peace, as the war has actually begun, and the soldiers are already in the field.


One Powerful Quote:

· “We have done everything that could be done to avert the storm which is now coming on.” -Patrick Henry


Three Additional Arguments:

· Colonists were sick of the taxes that Britain was imposing on them to maintain an army in America, when the colonists feel indignant about them being there in the first place.

· The trade and economy would flourish for the colonies if they were an independent nation.

· Colonists were resentful when the British issued the proclamation of 1763, and told them that they could not settle west of the Appalachians, land that the colonists believed were rightfully theirs.


The British tried to force the colonists to share the cost of an empire (war debts, armies, etc…), while the colonists did not want to be part of an empire in the first place.

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Does the creation of Israel have economic, military, religious and consequences that permeate international relations today? Causes and Consequences of the Creation of the State of Israel:


The breakup of the Ottoman Empire (1516 to 1917) after WWI-- Zionism (movement to create a Jewish home for the Jews of the world, formally created in 1897 by Theodor Herzl after he witnessed the shame of officer Dreyfus). After having having thought of Argentina and even Uganda, at its meeting in 1906 the Zionist Congress decides that the Jewish homeland should be in Palestine.


Balfour Declaration (November 2, 1917) Great Britain declares:

“His Majesty’s Government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of the existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the right and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.”


However in 1916 Britain, signed the secret Sykes-Picot agreement with France and Russia dividing the Arab regions of the former Ottoman Empire into zones of influence: France would rule Lebanon and Syria, Britain would rule Jordan and Iraq and Palestine would be internationalized.


Also in correspondence with Husein ibn Ali of Meca dated 1915-1916, the British had promised Arabs the independence of their lands in return for Arab support against Turkey which was allied with Germany in WWI.


British Mandate (1920 – 1946)


After WWI, at the Paris Peace Conference Palestine (Jordan and Israel) was declared a League of Nations Mandate (a kind of protectorate) under the administration of Great Britain. Great Britain was supposed to help Jewish immigration to the area under the terms of the Balfour Declaration.

However the conflicting promises made to the Arabs and to the Jews would make it impossible for Great Britain to keep peace in the area.


Creation of Transjordan (in 1922 the British divide Palestine in two along the Jordan river allowing Jewish immigration only to the West of the river, although still part of the Palestine Mandate the area on the east side of the river becomes known as Tranjordan. It was granted independence as a separate Palestine Arab State by Great Britain in 1946 and became known as Jordan.


Events of 1936


UN Partition Plan (11/29/47)

the General Assembly of the United Nations decided in its Resolution 181 of 29 November 1947 to divide the territory of Palestine as follows:

· A Jewish State covering 56.47% of Mandatory Palestine (excluding Jerusalem) with a population of 498,000 Jews and 325,000 Arabs;

· An Arab State covering 43.53% of Palestine, with 807,000 Arab inhabitants and 10,000 Jewish inhabitants

· An international trusteeship regime in Jerusalem, where the population was 100,000 Jews and

105,000 Arab


State of Israel proclaimed (May 14 1948)


Wars since the creation of the State of Israel

The Arab States and Palestinians refused to accept Israel’s right to exist under any circumstance setting the stage for continual unrest in the region, the most important events being:


1948 War of Independence (less than 48 hours after proclamation of State of Israel armies of Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Iraq invade the country)

The Jordanians take over East Jerusalem and a large portion of the West Bank of the Jordan River, Egypt takes the Gaza Strip. The new Jewish State suffers enormous losses but survives. 720,000 Palestinian Arabs flee from Israel into neighboring Arab States and become refugees.600,000 Jews flee Arab States to Israel and are granted full citizenship.


Sinai Campaign 1956

Egypt blocks Israel’s ports preventing sea trade with Africa and Far East. Israel retaliates by attacking Sinai and Gaza. Egypt also nationalizes Suez Canal causing England and France to launch attacks.


Six Day War 1966. In response to the massing of Arab forces along Israel’s border, Israel launches preemptive attacks against Jordan capturing Judea and Samaria, and against the Syrians capturing the Golan Heights. The Israelis kept these new borders until 1973.

Yom Kippur War 1973. Egypt and Syria launch a surprise attack on Israel in the Golan.


Attempts at Peace

1979 Egypt breaks rank with the rest of the Arab World

1988 Yasser Arafat’s PLO renounces terrorism and recognizes Israel’s right to exist.

Foreign involvement in the Israel/Arab conflict.

US relations with Israel

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Background

The physical presence of Israel has been maintained in Israel unbroken through the centuries even after the majority was forced into exile. Despite over the centuries being forced into exile or living under the dominion of various invaders assyrians, Romans, Arabs, and the Ottomans, the Jewish people never forgot their bond with the land and their numbers fluctuated with their fortunes with a first large scale immigration from Russia in 1882 to 1903.The idea of a Jewish state taking shape with the First Zionist Congress convened by Theodore Herzl in Basel, Switzerland. and a second wave from Poland and Russia from 1904-1914 to escape persecution.


First modern all Jewish city of Tel Aviv founded.


in 1880 Jews represented 5% of the total population in Palestine and resided primarily in Jerusalem. Their numbers grew as Jews began to emigrate from Russia and Poland to escape pogroms in those countries.

Zionism a movement to unite Jews of the Diaspora and settle them in Palestine further bolstered immigration. Book by Herzl The Jewish State (1896)


By 1914 The Jewish population in Palestine had grown to 12% of the population and immigration increased even more after British support of the Zionist cause.


Although the borders of Palestine have never been constant, they have always included the lands between the Mediterranean and the Jordan River. Under many successive foreign occupiers, the area known after WWI as “Palestine” never enjoyed a separate administrative or geographic identity. The Ottoman Turks who ruled the area from 1516 to 1917 and whose Empire in its Golden Age also included Asia Minor, Syria, Mesopotamia (Iraq) Arabia, Egypt and areas of Russia, considered Palestine part of Syria.

Until the late 19th Century, Palestine was under-populated and economically stagnant. Mark Twain in Innocents Abroad (1869) describes the area: “… a desolate country whose soil is rich enough, but is given over wholly to weeds – a silent mournful expanse … A desolation is here that not even imagination can grace with the pomp of life and action… We never saw a human being on the whole route … There was hardly a tree or a shrub anywhere. Even the olive and the cactus, those fast friends of a worthless soil, had almost deserted the country…”

1914-1916 The British made vague promises to support Arab independence in the lands of the former Ottoman Empire in return for Arab support against the Turks. Aided by the Arabs the British captured Palestine from the Ottomans in 1917 and 1918

1914-1917 some other shit happens

1914-1918 lands under Ottomans. rule including Palestine in return for Arab support against Turkey allied to Germany


1916 Sykes Picot Agreement Britain had agreed to split the Ottoman lands into British French and Russian areas of control upon defeating the Ottomans.


1917 Balfour Declaration letter to a British Zionist leader from foreign secretary Arthur J. Balfour expressed Britain’s support for the establishment of a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine. They wanted to obtain support of American and Russian Jews for the Allied war effort against Germany.


British Mandate 1922 – 1946

The League of Nations (an alliance of World Powers formed in 1920 to preserve peace) issued a mandate granting control over Palestine to Britain entrusting it to facilitate the establishment of a Jewish national home.


After WWI, at the Paris Peace Conference, the name Palestine was applied to an area which comprised both modern Israel and Jordan. At that time this area became a League of Nations Mandate, a kind of protectorate, under the administration of Great Britain. Great Britain was supposed to help Jewish immigration to the area under the terms of the Balfour Declaration of November 2, 1917 which reads:


“His Majesty’s Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.”


However, in 1922 the British divided Palestine in two along the Jordan river only allowing Jewish immigration to the west of the river and leaving only one fourth of the area for a Jewish national home. Although still part of the Palestine Mandate, the area on the east side of the river became known as Tranjordan. It was granted independence as a separate Palestine Arab state by Great Britain in 1946.

1929 Riots

· Growing Arab fear regarding Zionist movement and growing Jewish immigration caused the riots of 1929 Palestinians killed 133 Jews and 116 Arabs which was sparked over a dispute over the Western Wall of Al-Aqsa Mosque sacred to Arabs but the Jews claim wrongly that it is a remnant of the Jewish Temple (www.palestinehistory.com)

· Following increasing violence 1937 Peel Commission concludes that the Mandate is unworkable no hope of creating a cooperative national entity that would include both Jews and Arab. The commission recommended partition.

· Eve of WWII 1939 White Paper severely curtails Jewish immigration

During its mandate GB realized that their WWI promises have led to conflicting expectiation of the two communities in Palestine. Each community feels entitled to the whole of Palestine.


Britain tries to placate both sides by reaffirming its support for the jewish homeland but also by limiting immigration and land purchases by Jews.


Great Britain can’t keep order and decides to leave Palestine and asks the UN to take over November 29 1947 the UN adopts a Partition Plan with a Jewish and Arab state joined in an economic union. supported by US and Soviet Union. The British Mandate was to end on August 15, 1948 but the British decided to leave on May 15, 1948


To solve the problem of the future of Palestine which was under British mandate, the General Assembly of the United Nations decided in its Resolution 181 of 29 November 1947 to divide the territory of Palestine as follows:

· A Jewish State covering 56.47% of Mandatory Palestine (excluding Jerusalem) with a population of 498,000 Jews and 325,000 Arabs;

· An Arab State covering 43.53% of Palestine, with 807,000 Arab inhabitants and 10,000 Jewish inhabitants

· An international trusteeship regime in Jerusalem, where the population was 100,000 Jews and 105,000 Arab


Neither the Arabs nor the Jews were happy with the plan but while the Jews of Palestine accepted it, the Arabs rejected the establishment of a Jewish State. 33 countries voted in favor, 13 against and 10 abstained. All the Arab members of the United Nations (Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Yemen) voted against partition.


The plan didn’t really established to separate countries. They were to be joined economically with a joint monetary system, joint administration of main services, equal access to water and energy sources.


The plan called for free access to and preservation of the Holy Places and freedom of religion.


Withdrawal of Britain May 15, 1948

Between the vote for the UN partition plan and the departure of the British, both Arabs and Jews raced to amass arms and create secret armies-- attacks on Jewish settlements, massacres of unarmed Palestinian in their homes. The British refused to intervene.


When it became clear that the British intended to leave by May 15, the Jewish leadership decided to implement the part of the partition plan calling for establishment of a Jewish state and on May 14 the Provisional State Council proclaimed the establishment of the Jewish State of Palestine to be called Medinat Israel


War of 1948 War of Independence

After Israel declared its independence, the secretary of the Arab League Azzam Pasha declared a holy war “jihad” and the Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin Al Husseini stated: “I declare a holy war, my Moslem brothers! Murder the Jews! Murder them all!” and the armies of Lebanon, Syria, Jordan. Egypt and Iraq invaded Palestine. The Jordanians took over East Jerusalem and a large portion of the west bank of the Jordan River, Egyptian troops took the Gaza Strip. The new Jewish state suffered enormous losses but survived. The Palestinian Arabs lost everything.


the war ended with 4 UN arranged armistice agreement between Israel, Egypt Lebanon, Jordan and Syria. The frontiers remained until the 6 day war.


After the war of Independence 720,000 Arabs fled what is now Israel to neighboring Arab States where they were kept in refugee camps being led to believe that they would soon be able to return to their homeland after Israel had been defeated. At the same time 600,000 Jews fleeing various Arab states where they were being persecuted were granted full citizenship in Israel.


Sinai Campaign

The armistice were never converted to peace treaties because the Arabs insisted that Arabs be allowed to return to their homes, that Jerusalem be internationalized and that Israel make territorial concession, Israel replied that this would undermine its security.


Egypt refused to let Israeli ships use the Suez Canal and blocked her access to the Red Sea. Then Egypt internationalized the Suez Canal. These actions were seen as an act of war on the part of Israel, England and France and erupted in the second Israeli Arab War in October/November 1956.


The US and the Soviet Union supported the UN in forcing Israel, England and France to leave Egypt and Gaza but Israel only left Gaza after the U.S. promised to resolve the conflict and keep access open to the Red Sea


1958 Attemps at Arab unity. UAR

1964 PLO Established


Six Day War

During early 1966 Israel’s Arab neighbors seeking revenge increased activities against her. The Syrians shelled Israeli towns from the Golan Heights, Egyptian forces moved in the Sinai, Egypt expelled UN peacekeeping forces along Israel’s borders, and closed the straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping. Syria, Jordan, Iraq and Saudi Arabia moved troops to Israel’s borders. Israel didn’t wait for an attack. After Jordan opened heavy artillery on west Jerusalem and the Tel Aviv area they attacked Jordan on June 8, capturing the whole of Judea and Samaria and East Jerusalem. On June 9 they attacked the Syrians and took Golan Heights. Within six days Israel had captured the entire Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza strip from Egypt, Judea and Samaria and the Golan heights. They were in a good position and didn’t withdraw to the 1949 armistice lines. Security improved greatly although the terrorists were able to keep bases in Jordan and Lebanon. The cease-fire of 1967 remained Israel’s borders until 1973.


Yom-Kippur War 1973

On the holy day of Yom Kippur on October 6, 1973 Egypt and Syria launched a surprise attack on Israel to regain territories lost in 1967 attacking Israel’s installations in the Golan an area of strategic importance since the Golan Heights overlook Lake Kinneret an important source of water and energy for Israel

The USSR, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait financed the Arab forces, and Soviet weapons, and cut off oil exports to the US and other western nations in retaliation for aid to Israel.

Henry Kissinger negotiated agreement between Israel and Egypt and Syria.


PROSPECT OF PEACE

Until this time the Arab states and Palestinians alike refused to accept Israel’s right to exist under any circumstances and within any borders.


Camp David Accords – 1979

Then Egypt breaks rank when In 1977 President Anwar al Sadat of Egypt flies to Jerusalem to address the Knesset and begin peace talks with Begin with help from the U.S.

Jimmy Carter an Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty is signed in Washington DC on March 26, 1979 Begin and Sadat won the Nobel peace prize for their efforts but issues of Arab autonomy in the occupied West Bank and Gaza have not been resolved


October 1 1981 President Sadat of Egypt assassinated

by Islamic fundamentalist gunmen in Cairo during a military parade. Iraq, Libya, Syria and the PLO applauded the assassination.


1982 Israel invades Lebanon

to wipe out the PLO. PLO agrees to withdraw its guerrillas from Beyrut after heavy fighting in and around Beyrut. Israeli troops remain in Southern Lebanon.


1987 – The Palestinian Intifada (Resistance – uprisings in the occupied territories demonstrations strikes, rock throwing)

Israeli overreaction draws criticism from the US and the UN

1988 – Jordan gives up the West Bank in favor of the Palestinian people. has a strong majority of Palestinian but is under Israeli control since 1967

1988 PNC declares the State of Palestine as outlined in the UN partition Plan with a flag. only states that have not recognized Israel recognize it.

1988 Yasser Arafat’s Palestine Liberation Organisation renounces terrorism and recognizes Israel’s right to exist. providing a chance for mediation.


1991 Peace Talks

First comprehensive peace talks between Israel and delegations representing the Palestinians and neighboring Arab states.

Oslo Agreements

1) In 1993 after secret negotiations worked out in secretly in Oslo, Norway Prime Minister Rabin and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat fly to Wshington DC (Bill Clinton) and after 45 years of confrontation Israel and Palestine sign a historic peace agreement.


Three stage process for Palestinian eventual autonomy

1st phase finalized in May 1994 pullout of Israeli troops from the Gaza Strip and the West Bank city of Jericho and the handing over of administrative duties to the Palestinian National authority led by Arafat.

2nd stage removal of Israeli forces from six Arab cities and 400 villages in the West Bank by 1996 then elections would be held for a 82 member Palestinian council which would possess legislative and executive power in the West Bank and Gaza.

3rd stage status of Jerusalem, the fate of israeli settlers and final borders between Israel and the Palestinian state..

November 1995 – Prime Minister Rabin assassinated in Tel Aviv by a right wing extremist who considered him a traitor to the Jewish State.

Problems: Continued Hamas, Islamic Jihad terrorist activities cause concern in Israel over

personal security.

Extremists on both side vowed to prevent the implementation of these accords.


1994 – jordan signs a peace agreement with Israel King Hussein of Jordan and Prime Minister Rabin US Bill Clinton brings peace along Israel’s longest border. Jordan has refrained from launching war with Israel since the 6 day war and remained neutral during the Yom Kippur War but has more to do with economic motivation as its trading partner Iraq was crushed during the Gulf War so can benefit from trade with Israel. Joint development projects for the arid south and airports. good relations between King Hussein and Rabin both dead

Peace process stalled because of new Jewish community planned in Jerusalem several attempts to restart have stalled including the Camp David II talks of July 2000 issues of Jerusalem and the right of return for Palestinian refugees proved too difficult to resolve.


. The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power also included all of this During Golden Age, Selim I took the title of caliph, ruler of all Muslims and became the spiritual leader of Islam.

By 1850, however, the Ottoman Empire was referred to the “sick man of Europe” and was at risk of falling apart.

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In “The Casualties of the War in Vietnam,” Martin Luther King puts forth five warnings and concerns for the Vietnam war that relates as well to the war in Iraq. These points are presented for the public, so that they may see the other side of war that has not been revealed in the news and media.

Reasons for the Termination of the War:

· Western Arrogance

-Martin Luther King describes the American outlook on international relations as both conceited and egotistical. He writes, “We arrogantly feel that we have everything to teach other nations and nothing to learn from them.” He tells us that we as Americans believe we are always right in how we view other nations, and we believe that we are a beacon of light, and a model for the rest of the world. I believe that Martin Luther King is right in being fed up with the notion that America has an almost self righteous attitude with the positions and views of world affairs that we take on and defend. For example, when the Vietnamese people declared their independence in 1945, led by Ho Chi Minh, and used the American Declaration of Independence to do so, America refused to recognize them, as we felt that Vietnam “was not ready” to be an independent nation. I believe that by openly showing the world America’s hypocrisy, we will alienate ourselves from other nations, and our international allies will begin to distance themselves from the shallow display of virtues that our nation holds.

· Mankind’s Survival

Martin Luther King also points out that the growth of war jeopardizes mankind’s survival. While governments talk of peace, they set aside huge amounts of money for the sole purpose of purchasing weapons. War will consequently lead to the manufacturing of more arms, and the expansion of nuclear weapons. That America would rather bomb Vietnam than talk of peace terms, certainly tells about the direction in which this humanity seems destined. When our country spends more money on mutilating and destroying human life than it does on educating those lives, I believe that mankind’s survival really is in jeopardy, and we as a society must do something to turn that around.

· Moral Example

Many consider America the richest and most influential country in the world. Therefore it is not a huge intellectual jump to realize that if America seems to sponsor and support a war, then many other nations will be affected, whether by political or economic ties with the United States. It is no wonder that Martin Luther King is disappointed and frustrated with the “triple evils of racism, extreme materialism, and militarism.” How could any nation look to one for advice when that country would rather violently annihilate another nation than live peacefully with each other.

· Enlarged Power Means Enlarged Peril

Martin Luther King tells us in his essay that because America is such a world power, we should be able to end the problems of poverty, racism, and human suffering. He tells us that “enlarged power means enlarged peril, if there is not concomitant growth of the soul.” He says that if that power is not used responsibly and carefully, it can lead to arrogance, corrupting a people and government.

· Love for America

Finally, Martin Luther King tells us that our love for America should justify the termination of the war in Vietnam. Our passionate love for this country should be one of the reasons, if not the only reason, why this terrible war should end. It should be the sole reason why we should strive for a life in a non-violent atmosphere, rather than one in violent co-annihilation. I strongly believe in this philosophy, and believe that our love for America should also help to end the reasons for war. Our love should end the western arrogance of today. It should be why the survival of humanity is important. It is the reason we want America to be the Moral example it once was. And our love for America is the reason we should want to use our power responsibly and carefully, so that we may live in a world of peace and prosperity.